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Common Functions in R Programming

Here are a list of common functions are that used in most R Programs:

  • factor(): This function is used to convert a vector into a factor. A factor, in case you didn't know, is a variable used to categorize and store data. All data will be stored as integer values in a vector format. Here is a visualization of vectors:
Visualization of Vectors in R
  • levels(): This function provides access to the levels attribute of a variable. The levels attribute in R represent a vector of all possible values of an original vector. So the levels for the following vector: [0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 8, 8] would be [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8]
  • seq(): This function is used to generate sequences from the given inputs. Here are the arguments it takes: seq(from, to, by, length.out, along.with)
    • from: This is the beginning number of the sequence
    • to: This is the terminating number of the sequence
    • by: This is the incrementing factor for the sequence
    • length.out: This number decides the total length of the sequence
    • along.with: This parameter takes an input vector. The resulting output vector from seq() will be the same length as this input vector


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